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一文读懂碳纤维缠绕技术

更新日期: 2021-6-23  

什么是碳纤维 What is carbon fiber

碳纤维是由碳元素组成的一种特种纤维,其含碳量随种类不同而异,一般在90%以上。

Carbon fiber is specially made of carbon elements. Its carbon content varies with different types, generally more than 90%.


特性/Characteristic

  • 耐高温、耐摩擦

    Electrically and thermally conductive

  • 导电、导热、耐腐蚀

    Strong resistance to high temperature, abrasion and corrosion


优点/Advantage

  • 外形有显著的各向异性、柔软、可加工成各种织物,沿纤维轴方向表现出很高的强度。碳纤维比重小,因此有很高的比强度

    Obvious anisotropy in appearance, soft, processable into various fabrics, and exhibit high strength along the fiber axis. Very high specific strength due to small specific gravity of carbon fiber.


用途/Application

  • 与树脂、金属、陶瓷等基体复合,制成结构材料。

    It can be combined with resin, metal, ceramic and other substrates to make structural materials.

什么是碳纤维增强环氧树脂复合材料

What is carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite

碳纤维增强环氧树脂复合材料的比强度、比模量综合指标是现有结构材料中最高的。在密度、刚度、重量、疲劳特性等有严格要求的领域,在要求高温、化学稳定性高的场合,碳纤维复合材料都颇具优势。


Specific strength and specific modulus of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composite is the highest among existing structural materials. In areas with strict requirements on density, stiffness, weight and fatigue performance, carbon fiber composite materials are quite advantageous in occasions that require high temperature and high chemical stability.


由碳纤维和环氧树脂结合而成的复合材料,由于其比重小、刚性好和强度高而成为一种先进的航空航天材料。因为航天飞行器的重量每减少1公斤,就可使运载火箭减轻500公斤。所以先进复合材料在航空航天工业中应用普遍。


The composite material is composed of carbon fiber and epoxy resin. It has become an advanced aerospace material due to its small specific gravity, good rigidity and high strength. For every 1 kg reduction in the weight of a space vehicle, the launch vehicle can be reduced by 500 kg. Therefore, advanced composite materials are widely used in the aerospace industry.


碳纤维及碳纤维复合材料的优点
Advantages of carbon fibers and carbon-fiber composite materials

  • 高强度(钢铁的5倍)

    High strength (5 times of steel)

  • 耐热(可耐2000℃以上的高温)

    Heat resistant (can withstand high temperatures above 2000°C)

  • 抗热冲击性优异

    Excellent thermal shock resistance

  • 低热膨胀系数

    Low thermal expansion coefficient

  • 热容量小

    Small heat capacity

  • 比重小(钢的1/5)

    Small specific gravity (1/5 of steel)

  • 优异的抗腐蚀和抗辐射性能

    Excellent anti-corrosion and anti-radiation performance

碳纤维缠绕工艺 
Carbon fiber winding process


碳纤维缠绕是一种复合材料连续成型方法,是将浸过树脂胶液的连续纤维或布带,按照一定规律缠绕到芯模上,然后固化脱模成复合材料制品。

Carbon fiber winding is a continuous molding method of composite materials, which is to wind continuous fibers or fabrics impregnated with resin glue on a core mold according to a certain rule, and then solidify and demold into composite products.


适用产品:碳纤、玻纤复合材料制品,如圆形管道、压力罐、贮存罐等旋转对称形状产品(电抗器,大型发电子定子, 高压气瓶,各种绝缘套管)

Applicable products: carbon fiber and glass fiber composite products, such as circular pipes, pressure tanks, storage tanks and other rotationally symmetric products (reactors, large electronic stators, high-pressure gas cylinders, various insulating sleeves)


特点:成型过程连续,一次性完成; 制品形状和尺寸都能得到保证,在直径方向的强度高。但需要专门的缠绕机器和辅助设备,生产成本较高

Features: Continuous molding process completed at one time; well guaranteed shape and size of the finished product, and high strength in diameter direction. However, relatively high production cost, specialized winding machines and auxiliary equipment are required.



工艺分类(按树脂成型状态不同) 

Process classification (by different resin molding states)


所有工艺中以湿法缠绕应用最为普遍。干法缠绕仅用于高性能、高精度的航空航天的高端技术领域。

Among all the processes, wet winding is the most common application. Dry winding is only applied in high-performance, high-precision and high-end aerospace technology.



碳纤维缠绕工艺原材料 Raw materials for carbon fiber winding process

  • 增强材料:纤维纱

    Reinforcing material: fiber yarn

  • 树脂基体:树脂和固化剂组成的胶体材料。树脂主要是不饱和聚酯树脂(民用管,罐),环氧树脂(压缩和层间剪切强度要求高的),双马来酰亚胺树脂(航空航天制品)

    Resin matrix: colloidal material composed of resin and curing agent. Main resins include unsaturated polyester resin (civil pipes, tanks), epoxy resin (high compression and interlayer shear strength requirements), bismaleimide resin (aerospace products) 

  • 填料:加入后能改善树脂基体的性能,如提高耐磨性,增加阻燃性,降低收缩率

    Filler: It can improve the performance of the resin matrix after being added. For example, it can achieve better abrasion resistance, higher flame retardancy and lower shrinkage.

碳纤维缠绕成型优点 Advantages of carbon fiber winding

  • 纤维强度高:可以按照产品受力状况设计缠绕规律,可以充分发挥纤维强度

    High fiber strength: According to the force condition of the product, winding pattern can be designed to give full play to the strength of the fiber to achieve the best effect.

  • 比强度高:纤维缠绕压力容器与同体积、同压力钢制容器比,重量减轻40%-60%

    High specific strength: The weight of the fiber-wound pressure vessel is 40%-60% less than the steel vessel of the same volume and pressure.

  • 可靠性高:易实现自动化,机械化生产。工艺条件确定后,缠出来产品质量稳定,精确

    High reliability: Easy to realize automation and mechanized production. After the process conditions are determined, the quality of the wrapped product is stable and accurate.

  • 生产效率高:自动化生产,缠绕速度快(240m/min)

    High production efficiency: automatic production, fast winding speed (240m/min)

  • 成本低:同一产品可合理选配若干材料(包括树脂,纤维和内衬),使其再复合,达到最佳经济技术效果

    Low cost: The same product can be equipped with several materials (including resin, fiber and lining) to make it recombined to achieve the best economic and technical effect.


碳纤维缠绕成型缺点 Disadvantages of carbon fiber winding

  • 缠绕成型适应性小,不能缠任意结构形式制品,特别是表面有凹的制品

    Winding process is not adaptable to arbitrary structure of products, especially the products with concave surface.

  • 缠绕需要缠绕机,芯模,固化加热炉,脱模机,熟练工人

    Require winding machine, mandrel, curing furnace, demoulding machine and skilled workers.


南通新纳希新材料有限公司拥有十几年专业生产各类特种环氧树脂的宝贵经验。下期内容中,我们将重点介绍适用于碳纤维缠绕工艺的新纳希自有专利树脂产品S-186。让我们下期内容见!


Nantong Synasia New Material Co., Ltd. has more than ten years of valuable experience specializing in the production of various specialty epoxy resins. In the next article, we will focus on introducing Synasia’s patented resin product S-186 which is perfectly suitable for carbon fiber winding application. Let's see you in the next article! 



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